What is an Opioid?
Opioids are illicit drugs, such as heroin, and prescriptions medications used to treat pain. Examples of prescription opioids include: morphine, codeine, methadone, oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, hydromorphone, and buprenorphine. Opioids work by binding to specific receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract. In doing so, they minimize the body’s "reward centers" in the brain can also trigger other systems of the body, such as those responsible for regulating mood, breathing, and blood pressure.
A variety of effects can occur after a person takes opioids, ranging from pleasure to nausea, vomiting, severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis), and overdose, in which breathing and heartbeat slow or even stop.
- Surgeon General’s Call to End the Opioid Crisis: Turn the Tide - About Opioids