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Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives

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Youth Best Practices Part II

Continued from Part I

Practice

Making Proud Choices

Description: Intertribal Council of Michigan (ITCMi) in collaboration with NNAAPCExit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov produced a Native Addendum to the "Making Proud Choices," an HIV prevention and resilience-building curriculum geared towards middle-school youth. The addendum intertwines Native story telling into each lesson of Making Proud Choices.

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Practice

Matrix ModelExit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: Matrix Model is an intensive outpatient treatment approach for stimulant abuse and dependence that was developed through 20 years of experience in real-world treatment settings. The Matrix Model is designed for delivery in a treatment program with adults ages 18 to 55 focusing on stimulant abuse and dependence. The intervention consists of relapse-prevention groups, education groups, social-support groups, individual counseling, and urine and breath testing delivered over a 16-week period. Patients learn about issues critical to addiction and relapse, receive direction and support from a trained therapist, become familiar with self-help programs, and are monitored for drug use by urine testing. The program includes education for family members affected by the addiction. The therapist functions simultaneously as teacher and coach, fostering a positive, encouraging relationship with the patient and using that relationship to reinforce positive behavior change.

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Practice

Mental Health First AidExit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: Mental Health First Aid is an adult public education program designed to improve participants' knowledge and modify their attitudes and perceptions about mental health and related issues, including how to respond to individuals who are experiencing one or more acute mental health crises (i.e., suicidal thoughts and/or behavior, acute stress reaction, panic attacks, and/or acute psychotic behavior) or are in the early stages of one or more chronic mental health problems (i.e., depressive, anxiety, and/or psychotic disorders, which may occur with substance abuse). The intervention is delivered by a trained, certified instructor through an interactive 12-hour course, which can be completed in two 6-hour sessions or four 3-hour sessions.

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Practice

The Model Adolescent Suicide Prevention Program (MASPP)Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: is a public health-oriented suicidal-behavior prevention and intervention program originally developed for a small American Indian tribe in rural New Mexico to target high rates of suicide among its adolescents and young adults. The goals of the program are to reduce the incidence of adolescent suicides and suicide attempts through community education about suicide and related behavioral issues, such as child abuse and neglect, family violence, trauma, and alcohol and substance abuse. As a community-wide initiative, the MASPP incorporates universal, selective, and indicated interventions and emphasizes community involvement, ownership, and culturally framed public health approaches appropriate for an American Indian population.

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Practice

Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET)Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: MET is an adaptation of motivational interviewing (MI) that includes one or more client feedback sessions in which normative feedback is presented and discussed in an explicitly nonconfrontational manner. Motivational interviewing is a directive, client-centered counseling style for eliciting behavior change by helping clients to explore and resolve their ambivalence and achieve lasting changes for a range of problematic behaviors. This intervention has been extensively tested in treatment evaluations of alcohol and other drug use/misuse. MET uses an empathic but directive approach in which the therapist provides feedback that is intended to strengthen and consolidate the client's commitment to change and promote a sense of self-efficacy. MET aims to elicit intrinsic motivation to change substance abuse by resolving client ambivalence, evoking self-motivational statements and commitment to change, and "rolling with resistance" (responding in a neutral way to the client's resistance to change rather than contradicting or correcting the client).

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Practice

Motivational Interviewing (MI)Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: MI is a goal-directed, client-centered counseling style for eliciting behavioral change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence. The operational assumption in MI is that ambivalent attitudes or lack of resolve is the primary obstacle to behavioral change, so that the examination and resolution of ambivalence becomes its key goal. MI has been applied to a wide range of problem behaviors related to alcohol and substance abuse as well as health promotion, medical treatment adherence, and mental health issues.

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Practice

Native H.O.P.E. (Helping Our People Endure)Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: The program offers a training of facilitators program. The purpose of the Native H.O.P.E. Training of Facilitators(TOF) manual is to prepare American Indian/Alaska Native/First Nations individuals to strengthen their facilitation and leadership skills so that they can replicate the curriculum successfully in their communities and reduce suicide among our most precious and sacred resource, our children and youth. The overall goal of the Native H.O.P.E. TOF is to strengthen the capacity of American Indian/Alaska Native/First Nations teens and young adults to help each other, their families, schools, and communities by using their sources of strengths, including culture and spirituality, to break the code of silence, and unhealthy multigenerational cycles. The overall outcome of the Native H.O.P.E. TOF is to create a call-to-action among Native youth and adults from their communities to develop and implement a strategic action plan that greatly reduces suicide and the contributing factors including depression, substance abuse, violence and exposure to trauma.

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Practice

Native STAND (Students Together Against Negative Decisions) Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: Native STAND is a peer education curriculum for healthy decision making for Native youth. It is based on STAND—Students Together Against Negative Decisions—a curriculum that was developed for rural youth in the southern U.S. It is a comprehensive curriculum for training peer educators that promotes healthy decision making for Native youth. All youth—including Native youth—face extreme pressures to fit in and belong. (website excerpt)

Tribes Using Practice: Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board MSPI

Practice

Native Wellness Youth Leadership Curriculum Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: From the website: Many of our young people are struggling and trying to find their identity and path. NWI is dedicated to giving Native youth the skills, confidence and self-esteem they will need to live–in a good way–in today's world. Our youth leadership and athletic camps, academies and gatherings allow our youth to make a "head to heart" connection and understand the "why" of the often negative behaviors they see and experience how we can promote and maintain living by the "Warrior's Spirit."

Tribes Using Practice: MSPI Eastern Shoshone Tribe

Practice

Olweus Bullying Prevention ProgramExit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: A multi-level, multi-component school-based program designed to prevent or reduce bullying which restructures existing school environments to reduce opportunities and rewards for bullying. It has also been shown to reduce substance use and delinquency. It is a systems change program, meant to be implemented and sustained over time. It is not a curriculum nor is it a conflict resolution or mediation program. It takes time to implement, and the results of the program grow stronger over time.

Tribes Using Practice: Multiple Alaska-based projects

Practice

Project Venture Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: An evidenced-based, outdoor experiential youth development program designed primarily for 5th- to 8th-grade American Indian youth focused on preventing alcohol and other substance use. It aims to develop the social and emotional competence that facilitates youths' resistance to alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. It aims to develop the social and emotional competence that facilitates youths' resistance to alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. Based on traditional American Indian values such as family, learning from the natural world, spiritual awareness, service to others, and respect, Project Venture’s approach is positive and strengths based. The program is designed to foster the development of positive self-concept, effective social interaction skills, a community service ethic, an internal locus of control, and improved decision making and problem-solving skills. The central components of the program include a minimum of 20 1-hour classroom-based activities, such as problem-solving games and initiatives, conducted across the school year. The project also includes weekly after-school, weekend, and summer skill-building experiential and challenge activities, such as hiking and camping. Finally, the program includes 3- to 10-day immersion summer adventure camps and wilderness treks and community-oriented service learning and service leadership projects throughout the year.

Tribes Using Practice: Alamo Navajo MSPI School Board /ABQ, Southern Ute Community Action Program (ABQ) [used with Camp Venture] MSPI, Toiyabe Indian Health Project, Five Sandoval Pueblos MSPI

Practice

Protecting Me/Protecting You Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: This is an evidence-based prevention curriculum for elementary students in grades one through five (6 to 11 years old). Designed to reduce alcohol-related injury and death in our Nation's youth, PY/PM:

  • Is proven to change students' knowledge about their brains and personal development
  • Improves elementary students’ vehicle safety skills: their ability to protect themselves when they have no option but to ride with an adult who is not alcohol-free

The Curriculum

  • Incorporates the latest research on human brain development
  • Focuses on the immediate risks of using alcohol before age 21
  • Includes parental involvement activities

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Rachel's Challenge (PP) Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: Intervention to motivate and equip students to start and sustain a chain reaction of kindness and compassion that transforms schools and communities (anti-bullying prevention).

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Practice

Reconnecting Youth: A Peer Group Approach to Building Life Skills Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: Reconnecting Youth: A Peer Group Approach to Building Life Skills (RY) is a school-based prevention program for students ages 14-19 years that teaches skills to build resiliency against risk factors and control early signs of substance abuse and emotional distress. RY targets youth who demonstrate poor school achievement and high potential for school dropout. … RY also incorporates several social support mechanisms for participating youth: social and school bonding activities to improve teens' relationships and increase their repertoire of safe, healthy activities; development of a crisis response plan detailing the school system's suicide prevention approaches; and parent involvement …

Tribes Using Practice: Northern Cheyenne MSPI

Practice

Red Ribbon Week Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: The Red Ribbon Campaign™ is now the oldest and largest drug prevention program in the nation reaching millions of young people during Red Ribbon Week®, October 23rd - October 31st each year.

Tribes Using Practice: Blackfeet DV Reduction

Practice

SMART (Skill, Mastery and Resistance Training) Moves Boys and Girls Clubs of America curriculum Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: The program uses a team approach involving Club staff, peer leaders, parents and community representatives. The program teaches young people ages 6 to 15 how to say no by involving them in discussion and role-playing, practicing resistance and refusal skills, developing assertiveness, strengthening decision-making skills and analyzing media and peer influence. The ultimate goal: to promote abstinence from substance abuse and adolescent sexual involvement through the practice of responsible behavior.

Tribes Using Practice:

Practice

Signs of Suicide (SOS)Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: SOS is a secondary school-based suicide prevention program that includes screening and education. Students are screened for depression and suicide risk and referred for professional help as indicated. Students also view a video that teaches them to recognize signs of depression and suicide in themselves and others. They are taught that the appropriate response to these signs is to use the ACT technique: acknowledge that there is a problem, let the person know you care, and tell a trusted adult. Students also participate in guided classroom discussions about suicide and depression. The program attempts to prevent suicide attempts, increase knowledge about suicide and depression, develop desirable attitudes toward suicide and depression, and increase help-seeking behavior among youth.

Tribes Using Practice: N/A

Practice

Stickball (PP)

Description: Excerpt from a progress report (Choctaw, DVPI020): Stickball is our traditional game that has traditional knowledge incorporated into the game that teaches our youth about relationships. It teaches about the expectation of being respectful and honorable with all and the relationships we should have with our families and children. Our program has shared [DV and SA prevention] information with both the children's programs and adult male and female teams.

Tribes Using Practice: United Voice Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma DVPI Project

Practice

Strengthening The Spirit and Sons & Daughters of Tradition Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: Youth participating in Strengthening The Spirit program are allowed to choose a mentor from among a "Strong Circle of Relatives," people they know, unlike other mentoring programs where youth don't know and aren't involved in selecting them. The Strong Circle of Relatives builds upon the Native American cultural tradition of an extended family, including the duty of caring for tribal children. Chosen, trained mentors work with the youth to teach tribal history, culture and value systems that have guided their people for generations; adolescents are able to learn from tribal elders and participate in cultural traditions through White Bison's prevention education program, "Sons and Daughters of Tradition." A program tenet is that reconnecting youth with their culture will help to protect them from temptations from alcohol, drugs, truancy, and criminal activities. By developing a cultural identity and pride for their heritage, youth can be motivated to change their behaviors and make positive choices.

Tribes Using Practice: Ponca Tribe MSPI, San Carlos Apache MSPI

Practice

Too Good for Drugs; and Too Good for Violence (Mendez Foundation) Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description:

  • Positive social norms
  • Peer bonding
  • Social skill development
  • Social emotional competency

Social Emotional Learning concepts are infused with established theories of social development, social learning, and normative education to build protective factors and mitigate risk factors for substance abuse. A knowledge base of the negative health effects of substance use, including the misuse of prescription and over-the-counter medications, promotes no-use norms and expectations.

Tribes Using Practice: Choctaw Nation MSPI, Osage Nation OKC MSPI

Practice

Trail Riders Diversion Program (also see Equine Assisted Therapy) Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: With Elders guiding, designing and driving the idea, the Trail Riders Club was formed. It is an equine focused diversion program that provides the opportunity for families to participate in a monthly activity involving horsemanship where participants can share Pima/Maricopa culture and recount a shared history—all of which fosters a sense of belonging. Youth and family members actually "ride" horses and wagons.

Tribes Using Practice: Gila River Phoenix MSPI

Practice

Turtle Camp Sr. (for youth 12-17) (local PP)Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov

Description: Excerpt from program narrative: The first Turtle Camp Sr., for youth ages 12-17, was held in October 2012. There were fourteen youth who attended this camp. The purpose of Turtle Camp Sr. is to offer the older youth a opportunity to participate in camp. The youth were educated on substance abuse and healthy relationships. The youth that attended this camp were introduced to cultural activities, i.e. stick ball and visiting the Chickasaw Cultural Center. At the cultural center, they were educated on the Chickasaw heritage and participated in a game of stickball and a traditional dance. The youth were able to tour the facility and see the houses that the Chickasaws lived in and some of their weapons used in battle.

Tribes Using Practice: OKC Indian Clinic MSPI

Practice

Youth Ambassadors Program (PP)

Description: "The Youth Ambassadors program is a unique program sponsored by the SEARHC "1 is 2 Many" Task Force. One high school student from each town residing in Southeast Alaska will have the opportunity to become a leader for their school. The 1 is 2 Many Task Force wants to collaborate with all Southeast Alaska partners especially the Youth to endeavor in a community-based approach for suicide prevention. We must engage, we must listen to each other and we must support each other. We need to talk openly about suicide. It should not be a taboo topic. We need to teach the youth that suicide is not ok, and we need to make sure each and every individual knows that there are options and suicide is not one of them." (Excerpt from application and information booklet for the SEARHC program)

Tribes Using Practice: N/A