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Primary Prevention Focus Areas


Healthy People Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving , the ongoing initiative from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is a set of nationwide health-promotion and disease-prevention goals for the upcoming decade. The current report, Healthy People 2030, contains 358 core (measureable) objectives as well as developmental and research objectives. Leading Health Indicators (LHIs) are a small subset of high-priority Healthy People 2030 objectives selected to drive action toward improving health and well-being. As a set, LHIs cover the life span.

The LHIs:

  • Focus on upstream measures, such as risk factors and behaviors, rather than disease outcomes
  • Address issues of national importance
  • Address high-priority public health issues that have a major impact on public health outcomes
  • Are modifiable in the short term (through evidence-based interventions and strategies to motivate action at the national, state, local, and community level)
  • Address social determinants of health, health disparities, and health equity
  • Have new data available periodically, preferably annually


The IHS Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention (DDTP) was established in response to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in Indian communities. The IHS DDTP develops, documents, and sustains a public health effort to prevent and control diabetes in AI/AN people.


Nutrition plays an integral part in many of our most prevalent diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cancers, and osteoporosis. IHS works to improve the health of patients with nutrition-related diseases, and to prevent these illnesses in future generations through interventions in schools, community health programs, and hospital and clinic-based services.


Two in five AI/AN children are overweight compared to just one in five children in the general population. IHS works to engage IHS Areas, local health facilities, and tribal communities to develop long-range, culturally competent, multidisciplinary, effective overweight and obesity treatments and preventative interventions for the diverse AI/AN population.

For more information on obesity prevention, visit the Healthy Weight for Life website.

Physical Activity and Exercise

Regular physical activity, including exercise, is critical for the health and well being of people of all ages. Virtually everyone can benefit from regular physical activity, whether vigorous exercise or moderate health-enhancing physical activities.

Tobacco Prevention and Cessation

Use of tobacco products is one of the leading causes of preventable death nationwide and is a major problem in AI/AN communities. IHS supports prevention of smoking and other tobacco use.